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Nursing Care Plan for HNP Herniated Nucleus Pulposus

HNP Herniated Nucleus Pulposus


Herniated Nucleus Pulposus

Intervertebral Discs are the cartilage plates that form a cushion between the vertebral bodies. Hard and fibrous material is combined in one capsule. Such as ball bearings in the middle of the disc called the nucleus pulposus. Herniated nucleus pulposus is a rupture of the nucleus pulposus.

Herniated nucleus pulposus into the vertebral bodies can be above or below it, can also directly into the vertebral canal.

Pain can occur in any part such as cervical spine, thoracic (rarely) or lumbar. Clinical manifestations depend on the location, speed of development (acute or chronic) and the effect on surrounding structures. Lower back pain is severe, chronic and recurring (relapse).

Diagnostic Examination
1. Spinal RO: Shows the degenerative changes in the spine
2. MRI: to localize even small disc protrusion, especially for lumbar spinal disease.
3. CT Scan and Myelogram if the clinical and pathological symptoms are not visible on MRI
4. Electromyography (EMG): to localize the specific spinal nerve roots are exposed.


Assessment Nursing Care Plan for HNP Herniated Nucleus Pulposus

1. Anamnesa
The main complaint, history of present treatments, medical history past, family health history.

2. Physical examination
Assessment of the patient's problem consists of onset, location and spread of pain, paresthesias, limited mobility and limited function of the neck, shoulders and upper extremities.
Assessment in the area include palpation of the cervical spine which aims to assess muscle tone and rigidity.

3. Examination Support

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Nursing Care Plan for Urethral Stricture

Nursing Care Plan for Urethral Stricture


Definition of Urethral Stricture

A urethral stricture is a narrowing of a section of the urethra. It causes a blocked or reduced flow of urine which can lead to complications.


Symptoms and signs

Symptoms of urethral stricture is a typical small stream of urine and branched irritation and other symptoms of infection such as frequency, urgency, dysuria, sometimes with infiltrates, abces and fistula. Symptoms are retained urine.


Physical Examination

Anamnese

To find the absence of symptoms and signs of urethral stricture also to look for causes of urethral stricture.

General and local examination

To check on the patient also to change in urethral fibrosis, infiltrates, abscesses or fistulas.

Examination Support

Laboratory: urea, creatinine, to see the renal physiology. Radiological Diagnosis must be made with urethrography. Retrograde urethrography to see the anterior urethra. Antegrade urethrography to see the posterior urethra. Bipoler urethrography is a combination of antegrade and retrograde urethrography examinations. With this examination can be expected in addition to the diagnosis of urethral strictures can be also determined the length of urethral stricture are important for therapy planning / operations.


Basic Concepts of Nursing Care

In nursing care is carried out by using the nursing process. The nursing process is a form of dynamic problem-solving process in an effort to improve and maintain optimal patient through a systematic approach to help patients. Nursing theories and concepts are implemented in an integrated manner in which organized phases which include:

Assessment, Nursing Diagnosis, Interventions, Implementation, Evaluation.

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