Nausea is a sensation of unease and discomfort in the upper stomach with an involuntary urge to vomit. It often, but not always, preceded vomiting. A person can suffer nausea without vomiting. Some common causes of nausea are motion sickness, gastroenteritis (stomach infection) or food poisoning, side effects of many medications including cancer chemotherapy, or morning sickness in early pregnancy. Medications taken to prevent nausea are called antiemetics and include diphenhydramine, metoclopramide and ondansetron. Nausea may also be caused by stress and depression.
Vomiting (known medically as emesis and informally as throwing up and a number of other terms) is the forceful expulsion of the contents of one's stomach through the mouth and sometimes the nose. Vomiting may result from many causes, ranging from gastritis or poisoning to brain tumors, or elevated intracranial pressure. The feeling that one is about to vomit is called nausea, which usually precedes, but does not always lead to, vomiting. Antiemetics are sometimes necessary to suppress nausea and vomiting, and, in severe cases where dehydration develops, intravenous fluid may need to be administered to replace fluid volume.
Vomiting is different from regurgitation, although the two terms are often used interchangeably. Regurgitation is the return of undigested food back up the esophagus to the mouth, without the force and displeasure associated with vomiting. The causes of vomiting and regurgitation are generally different.
Symptomatic treatment may occur while the underlying illness is being investigated because ideally, nausea and vomiting should resolve when the cause of the symptoms resolves.
Nausea and vomiting are often made worse when the patient is dehydrated, resulting in a vicious cycle. The nausea makes it difficult to drink fluid, making the dehydration worse, which then increases the nausea. Intravenous fluids may be provided to correct this issue.
There are a variety of anti-nausea medications (antiemetics) that may be prescribed. They can be administered in different ways depending upon the patient's ability to take them. Medications are available by pill, liquid, or tablets that dissolve on or under the tongue, by intravenous or intramuscular injection, or by rectal suppository.
Common medications used to control nausea and vomiting include promethazine (Phenergan), prochlorperazine (Compazine), droperidol (Inapsine) metoclopramide (Reglan), and ondansetron (Zofran). The decision as to which medication to use will depend on the specific situation.
Purpose: devisit fluid and electrolyte resolved
Expected outcomes: The signs of dehydration do not exist, the mucosa of the mouth and lips moist, fluid balance.
- Observation of vital signs.
- Observation for signs of dehydration.
- Measure infut and output of fluid (fluid balance).
- Provide and encourage families to provide drinking a lot of approximately 2000 - 2500 cc per day.
- Collaboration with physicians in the provision of therafi fluid, electrolyte laboratory tests.
- Collaboration with a team of nutrition in low-sodium fluids.
Nursing Diagnosis: Risk for Fluid Volume Deficit related to a sense of nausea and vomiting
Purpose: Maintaining the balance of fluid volume.
Expected outcomes: The client does not nausea and vomiting.
- Monitor vital signs.
- Rational: This is an early indicator of hypovolemia.
- Monitor intake and urine output and concentration.
- Rationale: Decreased urine output and concentration will improve the sensitivity / sediment as one suggestive of dehydration and require increased fluids.
- Give fluid little by little but often.
- Rationale: To minimize loss of fluid.
- The risk of infection associated with an inadequate defense of the body, characterized by: body temperature above normal. Respiratory frequency increased.